Clock-Aware Placement for FPGAs

TitleClock-Aware Placement for FPGAs
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsLamoureux, J., and S. J. E. Wilton
Conference NameField Programmable Logic and Applications, 2007. FPL 2007. International Conference on
Pagination124 -131
Date Publishedaug.
KeywordsCAD tools, clock-aware placement, clocks, field programmable gate arrays, FPGA, programmable clock network architecture, programmable logic devices, technology CAD (electronics)

The programmable clock networks in FPGAs have a significant impact on overall power, area, and delay. Not only does the clock network itself dissipate a significant amount of power, since it connects to every latch on the FPGA and toggles every cycle, but the design of the clock network also affects how efficiently the rest of the application can be implemented since it imposes constraints on the CAD tools which map the application onto the FPGA. To examine this tradeoff, this paper describes and compares new clock-aware placement techniques and then examines how the clock network architecture affects overall power, area, and delay. Our results show that the placement techniques used to make placement clock-aware have a significant influence on power and delay. On average, circuits placed using the most effective techniques dissipate 9.9% less energy and were 2.4% faster than circuits placed using the least effective techniques. Moreover, the results show that the clock network architecture is also important. On average, FPGAs with an efficient clock network were up to 12.5% more energy efficient and 7.2% faster than other FPGAs.


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