Analytical level crossing rates and average fade durations for diversity techniques in Nakagami fading channels

TitleAnalytical level crossing rates and average fade durations for diversity techniques in Nakagami fading channels
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2002
AuthorsIskander, C. - D., and P. Takis Mathiopoulos
JournalCommunications, IEEE Transactions on
Pagination1301 - 1309
Date Publishedaug.
Keywords3G cellular networks, analytical level crossing rates, average fade duration, cellular radio, closed-form solutions, diversity order, diversity reception, diversity techniques, equal-gain combining, maximal-ratio combining, MRC, Nakagami fading channels, Nakagami m-parameter, Rayleigh channels, Rayleigh fading channel, selection combining, wireless communication systems

The level crossing rates (LCRs) and average fade durations (AFDs) of a fading channel find diverse applications in the evaluation and design of wireless communication systems. Analytical expressions for these quantities are available in the literature for certain diversity reception techniques, but are generally limited to the Rayleigh fading channel, with few exceptions. Moreover, the methods employed are usually specific to a certain channel/diversity pair, and thus cannot be applied to all cases of interest. Using a unified methodology, we derive analytical expressions for the LCRs and AFDs for three diversity reception techniques and a general Nakagami (1960) fading channel. We provide novel analytical expressions for selection combining (SC) and equal-gain combining (EGC), and rederive in a more general manner the case of maximal-ratio combining (MRC). It is shown that our general results reduce to some specific cases previously published. These results are used to examine the effects of the diversity technique, the number of receiving branches and severity of the fading on the concerned quantities. It is observed that as the Nakagami m-parameter and the diversity order increase, the behavior of the combined received envelope for EGC follows closely the one for MRC, and distances itself from SC.


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