Computing intraoperative dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy using TRUS and fluoroscopy

TitleComputing intraoperative dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy using TRUS and fluoroscopy
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsFrench, D., J. Morris, M. Keyes, O. Goksel, and S. Salcudean
JournalAcad Radiol
Date PublishedOct

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: There is a need to provide real-time dosimetric feedback during prostate brachytherapy based on the location of the implanted seeds. The objective of our approach is to develop a system to accurately locate seeds with minimal impact on the current protocol for prostate brachytherapy and without additional imaging equipment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A new approach for intraoperatively computing dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy is presented. The approach uses transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and fluoroscopic images. A fluoroscopic image of the TRUS probe is required to register the fluoroscopic and ultrasound images. The C-arm is not moved during the procedure and all images are acquired from the same C-arm angles. A needle path is interpolated for each needle based on the location of the needle tip in TRUS images and the known entry point of the needle. Throughout the procedure, fluoroscopic images are acquired to determine the coronal plane coordinates of the seeds and the remaining coordinate of each seed is computed from the needle path. For accurate results, intraoperative seed motion tracking is advised and a method to achieve such tracking is also presented. RESULTS: Experimentally, the TRUS and fluoroscopic images are registered with a mean and maximum error of 1.3 mm and 5.8 mm, respectively. In a phantom, 12 seeds are located using our approach and compared with the known locations, with a mean error in the x, y, and z direction of 0.96 mm, 0.33, and 0.68 mm, respectively, and a corresponding maximum error of 1.85 mm, 0.56 mm, and 1.63 mm. Experimental results show motion tracking in the y-direction with submillimeter accuracy. The feasibility of our approach is tested on five cases of clinical data using a semiautomated version of our system and the resulting dosimetry is compared with that found using postoperative computed tomography images. The D90 and V100 metrics computed using our approach and the computed tomography images differ by a maximum of 16.6% and 1.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TRUS can be combined with single pose fluoroscopic images to compute delivered dose intraoperatively for prostate brachytherapy. Phantom results demonstrate the accuracy of the method and preliminary clinical results show its potential.


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