@article {Strunz2000Efficient-and-a,
title = {Efficient and accurate representation of asynchronous network structure changing phenomena in digital real time simulators},
journal = {Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on},
volume = {15},
number = {2},
year = {2000},
month = {may.},
pages = {586 -592},
abstract = {Due to synchronization requirements related to the interfacing with external systems, digital real time simulators of electromagnetic transients for equipment testing employ a constant integration time step width for solving the network equations. Therefore, the network solution is only calculated at discrete and equidistantly spaced time instants while in reality the time domain is continuous. Changes in network structure that occur between the discrete solution points are generally not simulated exactly. This can lead to switching control mistakes and numerical problems. In this paper the novel clock synchronized structure changing concept, which allows the accurate and efficient simulation of structural changes at arbitrary time instants, is presented},
keywords = {asynchronous network structure changing phenomena, clock synchronized structure changing, constant integration time step width, digital real time simulators, digital simulation, discrete solution points, ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS, EMTP, EMTP solution techniques, equipment testing, FACTS devices, HVDC power transmission, HVDC systems, network equations, power electronic device modeling, power system simulation, real time power system simulators, real-time systems, switching control mistakes, switching processes, synchronisation, synchronization requirements},
issn = {0885-8950},
doi = {10.1109/59.867145},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/59.867145},
author = {Strunz, K. and Linares, L. and Marti, J.R. and Huet, O. and Lombard, X.}
}